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2013年经济学人 噪音污染 Noise pollution

时间:2019-12-02 08:46来源:互联网 提供网友:nan   字体: [ ]
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Finance and Economics;Noise pollution: Shhh!

财经;噪音污染:嘘!

Why quiet carriages don't work, and how they might be made to

让车厢安静缘何行不通,如何才能静下来?

Quiet carriages on trains are a nice idea: travellers voluntarily switch phones to silent, turn stereos off and keep chatter1 to a minimum. In reality, there is usually at least one inane2 babbler to break the silence.

让火车车厢安安静静是个不错的想法:旅客们自觉地把手机调成静音,关掉音响,连闲聊都尽量小声。而在现实中,车厢里至少得冒出个蠢透了的话痨来打破这份安静。

A couple of problems prevent peaceful trips. First, there is a sorting problem: some passengers end up in the quiet carriage by accident and are not aware of the rules. Second, there is a commitment problem: noise is sometimes made by travellers who choose the quiet carriage but find an important call hard to ignore.

几个问题常阻扰你享受宁静的旅途。你首先要面对分挑车厢的问题:常有一些旅客莫名其妙地跑进了一节安静的车厢,并对里边的规定浑然不知。其次,你还得留意一个承诺问题:一些旅客原本想静静地呆在车厢,但有时他们会因自己必须接一通重要的电话而发出声响。

The train operators are trying to find answers. Trains in Queensland, Australia, are having permanent signs added to show exactly what is expected; a British operator has invested in signal-jamming technology to prevent phone calls. Microeconomics suggests another approach: putting a price on noise.

列车的驾驶员们正努力寻求保持车厢安静的方法。澳大利亚昆士兰的列车内就附有若干标识,明确提醒人们保持安静;英国的一名驾驶员购进信号干扰器以屏蔽列车上的通话。微观经济学则另辟蹊径地提出了一个方案:让人们为噪音埋单。

Fining people for making a din3 would surely dissuade4 the polluter and is a neat solution in theory, but it requires costly5 monitoring and enforcement. Another tack6 would be to use prices to separate quiet and noisy passengers—in effect, creating a market for silence. A simple idea would be to sell access to the quiet carriage as an optional extra when the ticket is bought. Making the quiet coach both an active choice and a costly one would dissuade many of those who do not value a peaceful ride.

理论上讲,向那些吵吵闹闹的旅客收取罚款无疑会劝阻他们勿吵勿闹,不失为一个干净利落的方法。但施行起来则需高昂的监管和执行费用。另一方案是将安静的旅客和嘈杂的旅客分离开来——实质上就是为安静创造一个市场。只需在售票时为安静车厢额外收费,就可轻松实现这一想法。将安静的车厢成为乘客的主动选择并收费就会让很多不珍视安静旅途的乘客静下来。

Charging may also solve the commitment problem. This is particularly tricky7, as attitudes to noise can change during the journey. Some passengers would pay the quiet premium8 but still chatter away when some vital news arrives. Schemes that reward the silent—a ratings system among fellow passengers, for example—could help. The idea is that losing your hard-won reputation offsets9 the short-term gain from using the phone. But such a system also fails the simplicity10 test.

收费或许同时能解决承诺问题。因为乘客对待嘈杂声的态度可能在旅途中发生变化,这就使得收费变得颇有难度。有的乘客可能为享受安静的车厢而支付了附加费用,但是他仍会在听到一些重大新闻的时候打开话匣子,畅聊起来。或许,在旅客中设立一个评级体系来奖励那些安静的人们或许会有所帮助。这个主意是,用来之不易的声誉来弥补因使用电话而产生的短期收益。但这样一个系统过于复杂。

A 2010 book by George Akerlof and Rachel Kranton argues that “norms”—feelings about how everyone should behave—also play a role in decision-making. Charging a price, even if just a token amount, means the quiet carriage becomes a service that fellow passengers have bought, not just a preference they have expressed. Perhaps different norms would come into play, encouraging calm. If not, a personal bubble is always an option: noise-cancelling headphones start at around $50.

乔治·阿克洛夫和雷切尔·克兰顿曾于2010年撰书称“行文准则”——人们对每一个体应如何表现的感受——在做决定时扮演着重要的角色。收一些费用,哪怕是象征性的一点点,意味着安静的车厢成为了人们所购买的一项服务,而不单是乘客偏爱安静的表现。各种不同的行为准则也许会发挥作用,鼓励人们保持车厢安静。若效果不佳,一点个人空间从来不失为一良策——毕竟消音耳机的起价仅约50美元。


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 chatter BUfyN     
vi./n.喋喋不休;短促尖叫;(牙齿)打战
参考例句:
  • Her continuous chatter vexes me.她的喋喋不休使我烦透了。
  • I've had enough of their continual chatter.我已厌烦了他们喋喋不休的闲谈。
2 inane T4mye     
adj.空虚的,愚蠢的,空洞的
参考例句:
  • She started asking me inane questions.她开始问我愚蠢的问题。
  • Such comments are inane because they don't help us solve our problem.这种评论纯属空洞之词,不能帮助我们解决问题。
3 din nuIxs     
n.喧闹声,嘈杂声
参考例句:
  • The bustle and din gradually faded to silence as night advanced.随着夜越来越深,喧闹声逐渐沉寂。
  • They tried to make themselves heard over the din of the crowd.他们力图让自己的声音盖过人群的喧闹声。
4 dissuade ksPxy     
v.劝阻,阻止
参考例句:
  • You'd better dissuade him from doing that.你最好劝阻他别那样干。
  • I tried to dissuade her from investing her money in stocks and shares.我曾设法劝她不要投资于股票交易。
5 costly 7zXxh     
adj.昂贵的,价值高的,豪华的
参考例句:
  • It must be very costly to keep up a house like this.维修这么一幢房子一定很昂贵。
  • This dictionary is very useful,only it is a bit costly.这本词典很有用,左不过贵了些。
6 tack Jq1yb     
n.大头钉;假缝,粗缝
参考例句:
  • He is hammering a tack into the wall to hang a picture.他正往墙上钉一枚平头钉用来挂画。
  • We are going to tack the map on the wall.我们打算把这张地图钉在墙上。
7 tricky 9fCzyd     
adj.狡猾的,奸诈的;(工作等)棘手的,微妙的
参考例句:
  • I'm in a rather tricky position.Can you help me out?我的处境很棘手,你能帮我吗?
  • He avoided this tricky question and talked in generalities.他回避了这个非常微妙的问题,只做了个笼统的表述。
8 premium EPSxX     
n.加付款;赠品;adj.高级的;售价高的
参考例句:
  • You have to pay a premium for express delivery.寄快递你得付额外费用。
  • Fresh water was at a premium after the reservoir was contaminated.在水库被污染之后,清水便因稀而贵了。
9 offsets 831bd6d82461a6164f50e583f8749188     
n.开端( offset的名词复数 );出发v.抵消( offset的第三人称单数 );补偿;(为了比较的目的而)把…并列(或并置);为(管道等)装支管
参考例句:
  • The following paragraphs deal with intra-source offsets and the so-called \"bubble\" concept. 下面讨论污染源内部的补偿和所谓的“泡泡”概念。 来自英汉非文学 - 环境法 - 环境法
  • The preceding paragraphs were concerned with inter-source offsets. 前文牵涉到污染源之间的补偿。 来自英汉非文学 - 环境法 - 环境法
10 simplicity Vryyv     
n.简单,简易;朴素;直率,单纯
参考例句:
  • She dressed with elegant simplicity.她穿着朴素高雅。
  • The beauty of this plan is its simplicity.简明扼要是这个计划的一大特点。
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TAG标签:   2013年听力  经济学人
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